Multiple Choice Questions on Cell Cycle

Q1. Which of the following choice is incorrect in relation to the interphase stage?

a) Period of great metabolic activity
b) It covers over 95% of the total duration of cell cycle
c) Absence of replication of DNA
d) Also called as preparatory phase


Q2. Duplication of DNA occurs in:

a) G1 phase
b) S phase
c) G2 phase
d) M phase


Q3. If cell division is restricted in G1 phase of a cell cycle, the condition is known as:

a) G1 phase
b) G2 phase
c) G0 phase
d) M phase

Q4. Go-phase of cell denotes:

a) Check point before entering the next phase
b) Death of cell
c) Temporary pause
d) Exit of cell from cell cycle

Q5. The sequence of cell cycle is:

a) S, M, G1 and G2
b) G1, G2, S and M
c) S, M, G2 and G1
d) G1, S, G2 and M

Q6. The synthesis of spindle proteins occur during:

a) G1-phase
b) S-phase
c) G2-phase
d) M-phase


Q7. Histone protein synthesis occurs during:

a) G1 phase
b) G2 phase
c) M phase
d) S phase

Q8. During cell cycle, DNA replicates:

a) Once
b) Twice
c) Many times
d) Not at all

Q9. Which of the following doubles during S phase:

a) Mitochondria
b) Chloroplast
c) Golgi body
d) All of the above

Q10. Which of the following phase of a cell cycle is called invisible phase:

a) G1 phase
b) S phase
c) G2 phase
d) M phase


Q11. If the DNA content in a cell at G1 phase is 2C, what will be the DNA content at S phase?

a) 2C
b) 4C
c) 1C
d) None



Q12. If the DNA content of a cell at G1 phase is 2C what will be the DNA content of its daughter cells after mitotic division?

a) 2C
b) 4C
c) 1C
d) None

Q13. The DNA content of a cell at G1 phase is 2C, what will be the DNA content of its daughter cells after meiosis II?

a) 2C
b) 1C
c) 4C
d) All of the above











Answer Key:

1. c      4. d     7. d     10. b   13. b
2. b      5. b     8. a     11. b
3. c      6. c     9. d     12. a

How the Cell Cycle is Controlled?

Cell cycle is run by a group of special proteins, called Cyclins and Cdks (cyclin dependent kinases). A cell reproduces by performing an orderly set sequences of irreversible events in which it duplicates its contents and then divide into two. These events are collectively called as cell cycle.

Molecular biologists have made a remarkable progress in identifying the biomolecules that control the cell cycle. Scientists working on frog eggs and yeast cell concluded that the activity of enzymes such as cyclin dependent kinases (Cdk‘s) regulate the cell cycle.

Kinase is a type of enzyme that is responsible for removing a phosphate group from ATP and add to another protein. The kinases involved in the cell cycle are called Cdks because they are activated when they combine with the key protein, cyclin.



At some check-point in the cell cycle (G1 à S and G2 à M), a kinase enzyme combines with cyclin and this moves the cell cycle forward. G1 or S-kinase is capable of initiating the replication of DNA once it combines with S-cyclin. After some time, S-cyclin is destroyed and S-kinase is no longer active. M-kinase, on the other hand, is capable of turning on mitosis once it combines with M-cyclin.

G1 to S transition is carried out by G1 or S cyclin + cdc 2 kinase
G2 to M transition is triggered by maturation promoting factor (MPF) formed by mitotic cyclin + cdc 2 kinase

Measures of DNA Content and Chromosome Content

The amount of DNA within a cell change following each of the following events:

  • Fertilization
  • DNA synthesis
  • Mitosis
  • Meiosis

We use ‘C’ to represent DNA content in a cell and ‘N’ to represent the number of complete sets of chromosomes.

In a gamete -- the amount of DNA is say, 1C
And the number of chromosomes say,    1N

Upon fertilization, both the DNA content and the number of chromosomes doubles to 2C and 2N respectively.

Following DNA synthesis, the DNA content doubles again to 4C, but each pair of sister chromatids is still as a single chromosome, so the number of chromosomes remain unchanged at ‘2N’


What is the Difference Between Mitosis and Meiosis?



What is Cell Cycle? What are the Different Phases of a Cell Cycle?

Complete lifecycle of a cell is known as cell cycle. An interphase occurs between two phases. During interphase, a cell grows in size and prepares itself for the next division. Interphase is also the most active phase of a cell cycle. During this phase, the metabolism activity of cell increases and a series of changes occur during the same phase. However, these changes are not visible under the microscope. That is why some scientists have termed interphase as a Resting Phase. Howard and Pelc -- two scientists have classified interphase into three sub-stages:




(I) G1 Phase / Pre-DNA synthesis phase / Post-mitotic phase:


--It is the longest phase of a cell cycle (about 12 hrs)
--During G1, a number of cell organelles increases in the cell and cell rapidly synthesizes different types of RNA and Protein.
--Due to the availability of protein, synthesis of new protoplasm takes place in a cell and it starts growing in size.
--A cell grows maximum in size during G1 phase of cell cycle.

(II) S-Phase (DNA Synthesis Phase):


--Replication of nuclear DNA and synthesis of Histone protein takes place during this phase.
--Replication of cytoplasmic DNA may occur in any stage of a cell cycle.
--Centriole replicates in late S-phase.
--Cell cycle can remain arrested only in G1 phase. When this occurs, G1 phase is called G0 phase (Quiescent Stage) -- this occurs in cells of a permanent tissue.
--G1 phase takes about 6 hours.



G2-Phase / Post-DNA synthesis phase / Pre-mitosis phase


--A number of cell organelle increases in a cell.
--Actual preparation (final preparation) if cell division occurs during this stage.
--Special materials required for cell division are synthesized in G2 phase, for instance, Tubulin Protein (required for the formation of spindle fibres).







Where to Take Admission for MBBS Course?

Students preparing for medical entrance tests must be thinking about where to take admission for MBBS course. Well, it's a very genuine question that would strike in every student's mind. I think every student must be aware of two medical entrance tests: the first one is AIPMT (All India Pre-medical Test), which is conducted by CBSE and the other one is AIIMS (All India Institute of Medical Sciences). However, there are other prestigious institutions where students can get admission through an all India entrance test. For instance, JIPMER, MGIMS-Wardha, Manipal-MAHE, COMED-K, AMU and AFMC, to name only a few. These institutions are known for their quality of education and placement.



Getting admission to these prestigious institutions is definitely a tough task, but not an impossible task for sure. It is, therefore, important to work hard in the right direction and pass the test for a better future. AIMPTBIO is always there to help aspiring students in the best possible manner.


List of Private Medical Colleges in India

Dear Students, in the last post, I had mentioned the list of government medical colleges where students can take admission to MBBS first year through an All India Pre-Medical Test. Besides, there are many private medical colleges in India where students can either take admission directly or through an entrance test. Since the list of private medical colleges in India is very large, I have considered only three states (Andhra Pradesh. Bihar, New Delhi)in this post. However, I will add the next three states in my next post.



ANDHRA PRADESH

1. Alluri Sitaram Raju Academy of Medical Sciences, Eluru (Annual intake: 100)

2. Bhaskar Medical College, Yenkapally (Annual intake: 150)

3. Chalmeda Anand Rao Institute Of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar (Annual intake: 150)

4. Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad (Annual intake: 150)

5. Dr. P.S.I. Medical College , Chinoutpalli (Annual intake: 150)

6. Dr. VRK Womens Medical College, Aziznagar (Annual intake: 100)

7. Fathima Instt. of Medical Sciences,Kadapa (Annual intake: 100)

8. Great Eastern Medical School and Hospital,Srikakulam (Annual income: --)

9. GSL Medical College, Rajahmundry (Annual intake: 150)

10. Kamineni Institute of Medical Sciences, Narketpally (Annual intake: 150)

11. Katuri Medical College, Guntur (Annual intake: 150)

12. Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Foundation, (Annual intake: 150)

Amalapuram
13. Maharajah Institute of Medical Sciences, Vizianagaram (Annual intake: 100)

14. Mamata Medical College, Khammam (Annual intake: 150)

15. Medicity Institute Of Medical Sciences, Ghanpur (Annual intake: 100)

16. MNR Medical College, Sangareddy (Annual intake: 100)

17. Narayana Medical College, Nellore (Annual intake: 100)

18. NRI Medical College, Guntur (Annual intake: 150)

19. P E S Institute Of Medical Sciences and Research, Kuppam (Annual intake: 150)

20. Prathima Institute Of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar (Annual intake: 150)

21. S V S Medical College, Mehboobnagar (Annual intake: 100)

22. Santhiram Medical College, Nandyal (Annual intake: 100)

23. Shadan Institute of Medical Sciences,
Research Centre and Teaching Hospital, Peerancheru (Annual intake: 150)

BIHAR

1. Katihar Medical College, Katihar (Annual intake: 060)

2. Mata Gujri Memorial Medical College, Kishanganj (Annual intake: 060)

3. Narayan Medical College & Hospital, Sasaram (Annual intake: ---)

DELHI


1. Army College of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (Annual intake: 100)



List of Medical Entrance Exams in India

Dear Students, if you’re reading this post, then you must be aspiring to become a doctor. Well, it is very important to gather information regarding the number of medical entrance exams in India. My aim is to give you the right information regarding the different medical entrance tests that are being conducted on All India basis. In this post, I’m considering government colleges only; however, there are several private medical colleges where students can take admission. In the next post, I’ll surely cover private medical colleges in India.

National Level Medical Entrance Exams

EXAMS INFORMATION

AIPMT -- CBSE (Link: http://aipmt.nic.in)

AIIMS (Link: http://www.aiimsexams.org/)

JIPMER -- Pondicherry (Link: http://www.jipmer.edu.in)

MGIMS -- Wardha (Link: http://www.mgims.ac.in/)

MANIPAL -- CET (Link: http://www.manipal.edu)

CMC -- Ludhiana (Link: http://cmcludhiana.in/)

IPU-CET-- Delhi (Link: http://ipu.ac.in)

AMU--CET-- Aligarh (Link: http://www.amu.ac.in/)

COMEDK -- Karnataka (Link: https://www.comedk.org)


State-level Medical Entrance Exams:

Assam -- CEE (Link: www.ceemedu.org/)

Bihar -- CECE (Link: http://bceceboard.com/)

EAMCET -- A.P (Link: http://www.apeamcet.org)

Goa--CET (Link: www.dtegoa.gov.in)

Gujarat -- CET (Link: http://www.gseb.org)

JK--CET (Link: http://jkgov.com/)

KEA--CET-- Karnataka (Link: http://kea.kar.nic.in)

KEAM -- CEE -- Kerala (Link: www.cee.kerala.gov.in)

MH--CET -- Maharashtra (Link: www.dmer.org/)

UP -- CPMT (Link: http://www.updgme.in/ http://upcpmt.in)


WB--JEE (Link: http://www.wbjeeb.nic.in)

U--PMT -- Uttarakhand (Link: http://hnbumu.ac.in/index.html)

Chhattisgarh
-- PMT (Link: http://www.cgdteraipur.ac.in/)

Jharkhand -- CECE (Link: http://jceceboard.org)

Which Stage of Meiosis I is called Bouquet Stage?

Leptotene is the first stage of Prophase I of meiosis I. It is called Bouquet Stage because of the following reasons:

During Leptotene, chromatin condenses to form chromosomes
Each chromosome has two chromatids and they are not distinct
The telomeric ends of chromosomes converge towards one side of the nuclear membrane giving an appearance of a horse-shoe shaped structure.

Best Ways to Face Medical Entrance Exams



Hello Students, hope you must be preparing hard for the medical entrance tests. AIPMT and AIIMS test dates have already been declared; and this obviously means that you’ve a very limited time frame to revise the syllabus and prepare yourself for the final day of the test. It is important for you to get disciplined, motivated and organized in order to achieve realistic goals. Besides, a good planning is essential, which must include a balanced routine and effective time management. Your routine must include activities like sleeping, studying and relaxing at intervals. There are a few basic things that you need to consider while preparing for the medical entrance exams.

Do’s

·         Make a timetable and adhere to it
·         Read NCERT Books everyday, especially in Biology subject
·         Learn the concept rather than mugging up
·         Revise chapters for at least three times
·         Take short breaks and revise effectively
·         Solve previous year question papers
·         Use a stopwatch to check the speed with which you solve the questions
·         Practice, practice and practice
·         Listen to toppers on YouTube to get motivated
·         Stay positive and confident

Don’ts

·         Do not buy unnecessary books
·         Do not hesitate to ask your friends or mentors to understand a concept
·         Do not try to cover the entire syllabus at a time
·         Do not take stress about too many things at a time
·         Do not neglect or skip chapters that you already know

Your aim is to succeed in the entrance tests and this could only be possible if you don’t get too much anxious about the exams. The possibility of success or failure depends on how you prepare yourself for the test. Practice as many questions as you can; if you mark incorrect to some questions, solve them again at certain intervals. 

Besides hard work, you also need to maintain your physical and mental wellness. It, is, therefore, important to follow a light, balanced diet to remain active, always. Say no to junk food as it may cause health problems. A minimum 8 hours of sleep is essential; and follow the golden rule, ‘’early to bed and early to rise, makes a man, healthy, wealthy and wise.’’ Best of Luck to all.